Science

Scott Black
Energy Production

Energy Production

VO2max, lactate threshold, and exercise economy are all important determinants of endurance exercise performance. However, before we can discuss any of those, we have to think about the reason that each is important. The fundamental requirement for physical work is energy production. In order for our muscles to generate force, energy is required. Whether we’re running a 100-meter sprint, out for a century ride, or summiting Mount Ranier, we are going to be using energy. VO2max, lactate threshold, and exercise economy all describe how our body creates that energy and how efficiently we use it. A simple way to think...

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Scott Black
Push to Perform

Push to Perform

"Each of us has some talent or genetic potential to be good at something."

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Sword Performance
Water : The Lifeblood of Peak Performance

Water : The Lifeblood of Peak Performance

Often overlooked, water is an essential nutrient and vital for life as it serves many functions : The human body is comprised of primarily water. It is found in every aspect of our anatomy and is physiologically responsible for major roles in our normal function. As you may have guessed, the need for adequate water is heightened when we work hard, particularly in the heat and humidity. In general, water helps carry our nutrients, vital electrolytes, and virtually every other substance in our body to our skeletal muscles, brain, and surrounding organs. Furthermore, it plays an essential role in fuel digestion,...

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Sword Performance
How Much is Too Much? Avoiding Hyponatremia

How Much is Too Much? Avoiding Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia is a hot topic of discussion in the endurance world.  Simply put, it means “too little sodium in the blood”.  The primary cause of hyponatremia is drinking too much during exercise.  It can be a very serious, even life-threatening, condition.  Fortunately, it is fairly rare and easy to prevent.   Drink to thirst... During most workouts or races, you can simply drink to thirst. If you feel thirsty, drink. If you don’t, don’t. Most people can tolerate only 1-2% dehydration without negatively affecting performance. You can think of this as the base. Measure sweat rate and replace what you’re...

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